Header Ads Widget

[MAN] verify

Content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Man page of VERIFY


Section: OpenSSL (1SSL)
Updated: 2022-07-04
Index Return to Main Contents


openssl-verify, verify - Utility to verify certificates  


openssl verify [-help] [-CAfile file] [-CApath directory] [-no-CAfile] [-no-CApath] [-allow_proxy_certs] [-attime timestamp] [-check_ss_sig] [-CRLfile file] [-crl_download] [-crl_check] [-crl_check_all] [-engine id] [-explicit_policy] [-extended_crl] [-ignore_critical] [-inhibit_any] [-inhibit_map] [-nameopt option] [-no_check_time] [-partial_chain] [-policy arg] [-policy_check] [-policy_print] [-purpose purpose] [-suiteB_128] [-suiteB_128_only] [-suiteB_192] [-trusted_first] [-no_alt_chains] [-untrusted file] [-trusted file] [-use_deltas] [-verbose] [-auth_level level] [-verify_depth num] [-verify_email email] [-verify_hostname hostname] [-verify_ip ip] [-verify_name name] [-x509_strict] [-show_chain] [-] [certificates]  


The verify command verifies certificate chains.  


Print out a usage message.
-CAfile file
A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain one or more certificates in PEM format.
-CApath directory
A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have names of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this form (``hash'' is the hashed certificate subject name: see the -hash option of the x509 utility). Under Unix the c_rehash script will automatically create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.
Do not load the trusted CA certificates from the default file location.
Do not load the trusted CA certificates from the default directory location.
Allow the verification of proxy certificates.
-attime timestamp
Perform validation checks using time specified by timestamp and not current system time. timestamp is the number of seconds since 01.01.1970 (UNIX time).
Verify the signature on the self-signed root CA. This is disabled by default because it doesn't add any security.
-CRLfile file
The file should contain one or more CRLs in PEM format. This option can be specified more than once to include CRLs from multiple files.
Attempt to download CRL information for this certificate.
Checks end entity certificate validity by attempting to look up a valid CRL. If a valid CRL cannot be found an error occurs.
Checks the validity of all certificates in the chain by attempting to look up valid CRLs.
-engine id
Specifying an engine id will cause verify(1) to attempt to load the specified engine. The engine will then be set as the default for all its supported algorithms. If you want to load certificates or CRLs that require engine support via any of the -trusted, -untrusted or -CRLfile options, the -engine option must be specified before those options.
Set policy variable require-explicit-policy (see RFC5280).
Enable extended CRL features such as indirect CRLs and alternate CRL signing keys.
Normally if an unhandled critical extension is present which is not supported by OpenSSL the certificate is rejected (as required by RFC5280). If this option is set critical extensions are ignored.
Set policy variable inhibit-any-policy (see RFC5280).
Set policy variable inhibit-policy-mapping (see RFC5280).
-nameopt option
Option which determines how the subject or issuer names are displayed. The option argument can be a single option or multiple options separated by commas. Alternatively the -nameopt switch may be used more than once to set multiple options. See the x509(1) manual page for details.
This option suppresses checking the validity period of certificates and CRLs against the current time. If option -attime timestamp is used to specify a verification time, the check is not suppressed.
Allow verification to succeed even if a complete chain cannot be built to a self-signed trust-anchor, provided it is possible to construct a chain to a trusted certificate that might not be self-signed.
-policy arg
Enable policy processing and add arg to the user-initial-policy-set (see RFC5280). The policy arg can be an object name an OID in numeric form. This argument can appear more than once.
Enables certificate policy processing.
Print out diagnostics related to policy processing.
-purpose purpose
The intended use for the certificate. If this option is not specified, verify will not consider certificate purpose during chain verification. Currently accepted uses are sslclient, sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt. See the VERIFY OPERATION section for more information.
-suiteB_128_only, -suiteB_128, -suiteB_192
Enable the Suite B mode operation at 128 bit Level of Security, 128 bit or 192 bit, or only 192 bit Level of Security respectively. See RFC6460 for details. In particular the supported signature algorithms are reduced to support only ECDSA and SHA256 or SHA384 and only the elliptic curves P-256 and P-384.
When constructing the certificate chain, use the trusted certificates specified via -CAfile, -CApath or -trusted before any certificates specified via -untrusted. This can be useful in environments with Bridge or Cross-Certified CAs. As of OpenSSL 1.1.0 this option is on by default and cannot be disabled.
By default, unless -trusted_first is specified, when building a certificate chain, if the first certificate chain found is not trusted, then OpenSSL will attempt to replace untrusted issuer certificates with certificates from the trust store to see if an alternative chain can be found that is trusted. As of OpenSSL 1.1.0, with -trusted_first always on, this option has no effect.
-untrusted file
A file of additional untrusted certificates (intermediate issuer CAs) used to construct a certificate chain from the subject certificate to a trust-anchor. The file should contain one or more certificates in PEM format. This option can be specified more than once to include untrusted certificates from multiple files.
-trusted file
A file of trusted certificates, which must be self-signed, unless the -partial_chain option is specified. The file contains one or more certificates in PEM format. With this option, no additional (e.g., default) certificate lists are consulted. That is, the only trust-anchors are those listed in file. This option can be specified more than once to include trusted certificates from multiple files. This option implies the -no-CAfile and -no-CApath options. This option cannot be used in combination with either of the -CAfile or -CApath options.
Enable support for delta CRLs.
Print extra information about the operations being performed.
-auth_level level
Set the certificate chain authentication security level to level. The authentication security level determines the acceptable signature and public key strength when verifying certificate chains. For a certificate chain to validate, the public keys of all the certificates must meet the specified security level. The signature algorithm security level is enforced for all the certificates in the chain except for the chain's trust anchor, which is either directly trusted or validated by means other than its signature. See SSL_CTX_set_security_level(3) for the definitions of the available levels. The default security level is -1, or ``not set''. At security level 0 or lower all algorithms are acceptable. Security level 1 requires at least 80-bit-equivalent security and is broadly interoperable, though it will, for example, reject MD5 signatures or RSA keys shorter than 1024 bits.
-verify_depth num
Limit the certificate chain to num intermediate CA certificates. A maximal depth chain can have up to num+2 certificates, since neither the end-entity certificate nor the trust-anchor certificate count against the -verify_depth limit.
-verify_email email
Verify if the email matches the email address in Subject Alternative Name or the email in the subject Distinguished Name.
-verify_hostname hostname
Verify if the hostname matches DNS name in Subject Alternative Name or Common Name in the subject certificate.
-verify_ip ip
Verify if the ip matches the IP address in Subject Alternative Name of the subject certificate.
-verify_name name
Use default verification policies like trust model and required certificate policies identified by name. The trust model determines which auxiliary trust or reject OIDs are applicable to verifying the given certificate chain. See the -addtrust and -addreject options of the x509(1) command-line utility. Supported policy names include: default, pkcs7, smime_sign, ssl_client, ssl_server. These mimics the combinations of purpose and trust settings used in SSL, CMS and S/MIME. As of OpenSSL 1.1.0, the trust model is inferred from the purpose when not specified, so the -verify_name options are functionally equivalent to the corresponding -purpose settings.
For strict X.509 compliance, disable non-compliant workarounds for broken certificates.
Display information about the certificate chain that has been built (if successful). Certificates in the chain that came from the untrusted list will be flagged as ``untrusted''.
Indicates the last option. All arguments following this are assumed to be certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate filename begins with a -.
One or more certificates to verify. If no certificates are given, verify will attempt to read a certificate from standard input. Certificates must be in PEM format.


The verify program uses the same functions as the internal SSL and S/MIME verification, therefore this description applies to these verify operations too.

There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed by the verify program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue after an error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the first error. This allows all the problems with a certificate chain to be determined.

The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.

Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied certificate and ending in the root CA. It is an error if the whole chain cannot be built up. The chain is built up by looking up the issuers certificate of the current certificate. If a certificate is found which is its own issuer it is assumed to be the root CA.

The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a number of steps. After all certificates whose subject name matches the issuer name of the current certificate are subject to further tests. The relevant authority key identifier components of the current certificate (if present) must match the subject key identifier (if present) and issuer and serial number of the candidate issuer, in addition the keyUsage extension of the candidate issuer (if present) must permit certificate signing.

The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no match is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates. The root CA is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the certificate to verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be found in the trusted list.

The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's extensions for consistency with the supplied purpose. If the -purpose option is not included then no checks are done. The supplied or ``leaf'' certificate must have extensions compatible with the supplied purpose and all other certificates must also be valid CA certificates. The precise extensions required are described in more detail in the CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS section of the x509 utility.

The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA. The root CA should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility with previous versions of OpenSSL, a certificate with no trust settings is considered to be valid for all purposes.

The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain. The validity period is checked against the current system time and the notBefore and notAfter dates in the certificate. The certificate signatures are also checked at this point.

If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered valid. If any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.  


When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat cryptic. The general form of the error message is:

 server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
 error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate

The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified followed by the subject name of the certificate. The second line contains the error number and the depth. The depth is number of the certificate being verified when a problem was detected starting with zero for the certificate being verified itself then 1 for the CA that signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text version of the error number is presented.

A partial list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this also includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file x509_vfy.h Some of the error codes are defined but never returned: these are described as ``unused''.

The operation was successful.
Unspecified error; should not happen.
The issuer certificate of a looked up certificate could not be found. This normally means the list of trusted certificates is not complete.
The CRL of a certificate could not be found.
The certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that the actual signature value could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value, this is only meaningful for RSA keys.
The CRL signature could not be decrypted: this means that the actual signature value could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value. Unused.
The public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be read.
The signature of the certificate is invalid.
The signature of the certificate is invalid.
The certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the current time.
The certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before the current time.
The CRL is not yet valid.
The CRL has expired.
The certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.
The certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.
The CRL lastUpdate field contains an invalid time.
The CRL nextUpdate field contains an invalid time.
An error occurred trying to allocate memory. This should never happen.
The passed certificate is self-signed and the same certificate cannot be found in the list of trusted certificates.
The certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted certificates but the root could not be found locally.
The issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the issuer certificate of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.
No signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one certificate and it is not self signed.
The certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum depth. Unused.
The certificate has been revoked.
A CA certificate is invalid. Either it is not a CA or its extensions are not consistent with the supplied purpose.
The basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.
The supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.
The root CA is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.
The root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.
Not used as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a result of the deprecation of the -issuer_checks option.
Not used as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a result of the deprecation of the -issuer_checks option.
Not used as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a result of the deprecation of the -issuer_checks option.
Not used as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a result of the deprecation of the -issuer_checks option.
Unable to get CRL issuer certificate.
Unhandled critical extension.
Key usage does not include CRL signing.
Unhandled critical CRL extension.
Invalid non-CA certificate has CA markings.
Proxy path length constraint exceeded.
Proxy certificate subject is invalid. It MUST be the same as the issuer with a single CN component added.
Key usage does not include digital signature.
Proxy certificates not allowed, please use -allow_proxy_certs.
Invalid or inconsistent certificate extension.
Invalid or inconsistent certificate policy extension.
No explicit policy.
Different CRL scope.
Unsupported extension feature.
RFC 3779 resource not subset of parent's resources.
Permitted subtree violation.
Excluded subtree violation.
Name constraints minimum and maximum not supported.
Application verification failure. Unused.
Unsupported name constraint type.
Unsupported or invalid name constraint syntax.
Unsupported or invalid name syntax.
CRL path validation error.
Path loop.
Suite B: certificate version invalid.
Suite B: invalid public key algorithm.
Suite B: invalid ECC curve.
Suite B: invalid signature algorithm.
Suite B: curve not allowed for this LOS.
Suite B: cannot sign P-384 with P-256.
Hostname mismatch.
Email address mismatch.
IP address mismatch.
DANE TLSA authentication is enabled, but no TLSA records matched the certificate chain. This error is only possible in s_client(1).
EE certificate key too weak.
CA certificate key too weak.
CA signature digest algorithm too weak.
nvalid certificate verification context.
Issuer certificate lookup error.
Certificate Transparency required, but no valid SCTs found.
Proxy subject name violation.
Returned by the verify callback to indicate an OCSP verification is needed.
Returned by the verify callback to indicate OCSP verification failed.
Returned by the verify callback to indicate that the certificate is not recognized by the OCSP responder.


Although the issuer checks are a considerable improvement over the old technique they still suffer from limitations in the underlying X509_LOOKUP API. One consequence of this is that trusted certificates with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified by the -CAfile option) or a directory (as specified by -CApath). If they occur in both then only the certificates in the file will be recognised.

Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject name are identical and mishandled them.

Previous versions of this documentation swapped the meaning of the X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT and X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY error codes.  




The -show_chain option was first added to OpenSSL 1.1.0.

The -issuer_checks option is deprecated as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 and is silently ignored.  


Copyright 2000-2017 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.

Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the ``License''). You may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You can obtain a copy in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or at <https://www.openssl.org/source/license.html>.




This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 04:45:32 GMT, September 16, 2022 Content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Man page of VERIFY


Section: Misc. Reference Manual Pages (8postfix)
Index Return to Main Contents


verify - Postfix address verification server  


verify [generic Postfix daemon options]


The verify(8) address verification server maintains a record of what recipient addresses are known to be deliverable or undeliverable.

Addresses are verified by injecting probe messages into the Postfix queue. Probe messages are run through all the routing and rewriting machinery except for final delivery, and are discarded rather than being deferred or bounced.

Address verification relies on the answer from the nearest MTA for the specified address, and will therefore not detect all undeliverable addresses.

The verify(8) server is designed to run under control by the Postfix master server. It maintains an optional persistent database. To avoid being interrupted by "postfix stop" in the middle of a database update, the process runs in a separate process group.

The verify(8) server implements the following requests:

update address status text
Update the status and text of the specified address.
query address
Look up the status and text for the specified address. If the status is unknown, a probe is sent and an "in progress" status is returned.


The address verification server is not security-sensitive. It does
not talk to the network, and it does not talk to local users.
The verify server can run chrooted at fixed low privilege.

The address verification server can be coerced to store unlimited amounts of garbage. Limiting the cache expiry time trades one problem (disk space exhaustion) for another one (poor response time to client requests).

With Postfix version 2.5 and later, the verify(8) server no longer uses root privileges when opening the address_verify_map cache file. The file should now be stored under the Postfix-owned data_directory. As a migration aid, an attempt to open a cache file under a non-Postfix directory is redirected to the Postfix-owned data_directory, and a warning is logged.  


Problems and transactions are logged to syslogd(8).  


Address verification probe messages add additional traffic to the mail queue. Recipient verification may cause an increased load on down-stream servers in the case of a dictionary attack or a flood of backscatter bounces. Sender address verification may cause your site to be blacklisted by some providers.

If the persistent database ever gets corrupted then the world comes to an end and human intervention is needed. This violates a basic Postfix principle.  


Changes to main.cf are not picked up automatically,
as verify(8)
processes are long-lived. Use the command "postfix reload" after
a configuration change.

The text below provides only a parameter summary. See postconf(5) for more details including examples.  


address_verify_sender ($double_bounce_sender)
The sender address to use in address verification probes; prior to Postfix 2.5 the default was "postmaster".

Available with Postfix 2.9 and later:

address_verify_sender_ttl (0s)
The time between changes in the time-dependent portion of address verification probe sender addresses.


address_verify_map (see 'postconf -d' output)
Lookup table for persistent address verification status storage.
address_verify_positive_expire_time (31d)
The time after which a successful probe expires from the address verification cache.
address_verify_positive_refresh_time (7d)
The time after which a successful address verification probe needs to be refreshed.
address_verify_negative_cache (yes)
Enable caching of failed address verification probe results.
address_verify_negative_expire_time (3d)
The time after which a failed probe expires from the address verification cache.
address_verify_negative_refresh_time (3h)
The time after which a failed address verification probe needs to be refreshed.

Available with Postfix 2.7 and later:

address_verify_cache_cleanup_interval (12h)
The amount of time between verify(8) address verification database cleanup runs.


By default, probe messages are delivered via the same route
as regular messages.  The following parameters can be used to
override specific message routing mechanisms.
address_verify_relayhost ($relayhost)
Overrides the relayhost parameter setting for address verification probes.
address_verify_transport_maps ($transport_maps)
Overrides the transport_maps parameter setting for address verification probes.
address_verify_local_transport ($local_transport)
Overrides the local_transport parameter setting for address verification probes.
address_verify_virtual_transport ($virtual_transport)
Overrides the virtual_transport parameter setting for address verification probes.
address_verify_relay_transport ($relay_transport)
Overrides the relay_transport parameter setting for address verification probes.
address_verify_default_transport ($default_transport)
Overrides the default_transport parameter setting for address verification probes.

Available in Postfix 2.3 and later:

address_verify_sender_dependent_relayhost_maps ($sender_dependent_relayhost_maps)
Overrides the sender_dependent_relayhost_maps parameter setting for address verification probes.

Available in Postfix 2.7 and later:

address_verify_sender_dependent_default_transport_maps ($sender_dependent_default_transport_maps)
Overrides the sender_dependent_default_transport_maps parameter setting for address verification probes.


Preliminary SMTPUTF8 support is introduced with Postfix 3.0.
smtputf8_autodetect_classes (sendmail, verify)
Detect that a message requires SMTPUTF8 support for the specified mail origin classes.

Available in Postfix version 3.2 and later:

enable_idna2003_compatibility (no)
Enable 'transitional' compatibility between IDNA2003 and IDNA2008, when converting UTF-8 domain names to/from the ASCII form that is used for DNS lookups.


config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf configuration files.
daemon_timeout (18000s)
How much time a Postfix daemon process may take to handle a request before it is terminated by a built-in watchdog timer.
ipc_timeout (3600s)
The time limit for sending or receiving information over an internal communication channel.
process_id (read-only)
The process ID of a Postfix command or daemon process.
process_name (read-only)
The process name of a Postfix command or daemon process.
queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.
syslog_facility (mail)
The syslog facility of Postfix logging.
syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
A prefix that is prepended to the process name in syslog records, so that, for example, "smtpd" becomes "prefix/smtpd".

Available in Postfix 3.3 and later:

service_name (read-only)
The master.cf service name of a Postfix daemon process.


smtpd(8), Postfix SMTP server
cleanup(8), enqueue Postfix message
postconf(5), configuration parameters
syslogd(5), system logging


Use "postconf readme_directory" or
"postconf html_directory" to locate this information.

ADDRESS_VERIFICATION_README, address verification howto


The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.


This service was introduced with Postfix version 2.1.  


Wietse Venema
IBM T.J. Watson Research
P.O. Box 704
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

Wietse Venema
Google, Inc.
111 8th Avenue
New York, NY 10011, USA




This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 04:45:58 GMT, September 16, 2022

댓글 쓰기

0 댓글